- CHOOSING AND PAYING FOR PRODUCTS
- SHIPPING AND RETURN POLICIES
- MORE QUESTIONS & HELPFUL ANSWERS
- WINEMAKING QUESTIONS
- BEERMAKING QUESTIONS
What is it about the “idea” of free shipping that is so attractive? I, myself have been lured by this phrase many times. But how can this be? UPS, FedEx and the USPS don’t work for free. Does it really matter? At least we’re saving some money.
A retailer throwing in the cost of shipping as an incentive for buying their product is believable enough. For instance, on Amazon.com if you spend over $25 you often are eligible for free standard shipping. Since many of the items Amazon sells are books, CDs and DVDs, one could see how eating a dollar or two is possible–especially since Amazon is such a huge seller. It’s not like they are paying the same shipping rates as the average Joe on the streets. They get deep discounts and they play the averages to know that in the end, they won’t lose money.
Where you should be especially suspicious about free shipping is on large or heavy items. Things like heavy 6 gallon wine kits are extremely expensive to ship. It doesn’t matter how large the company selling these items may be. They are not going to be able to negotiate the price down enough with the carrier to give away free shipping. The cost is going to have to be made up somewhere.
So, how do retailers offer free shipping on these larger items? There are several ways, but here are the most common methods:
- They hide the actual cost of shipping in the price of the item. This is an especially effective tactic on expensive items. For example, let’s say an electronic grain brewing system is priced at $650. The retailer may pay something like $500 for it. If the retailer is a big shipper, they may be able to negotiate a shipping rate of $25. So they offer “free” shipping to spur interest. In the end the retailer is still making $125 and has probably charged a higher retail price to cover those charges.
- Another particularly effective method is the use of “standard” shipping. Let’s take the example of an industrial bottle filler. The retailer may offer this device for $2700 with a cost of $2550. The actual cost of shipping is $150. Of course if they offer free shipping, they won’t make any money. So how can they do it? They offer free “standard” shipping. The customer is told that the order may take 2 to 4 weeks for delivery, but if they wish to receive it within the next few days they can use an expedited shipping method and the cost will be $200. Of course many customers will have an immediate need for that device, so they will go ahead and pay the extra shipping charge. The retailer actually makes an extra $50 on the transaction and this helps defray the costs of the customers that accept the free method. It’s just a matter of averages.
- Another common ploy is offering something like, “Free Shipping on all Orders over $50”. More often than not, a company doing this has marginally inflated the base price of all of their products just enough to make up for the lost shipping expense. Larger orders equate to more profits. Once again, it is a matter of averages.
This same principles apply to low cost shipping. The lesson here is that shipping is always charged and you may not see it. Once again, you may think, “big deal, at least I’m saving money one way or another.” The reality is that you are always paying for shipping, one way or another.
I’m a strong advocate of showing customers the true price. This is one reason why EC HOMEBREW always charges for shipping. We employ a fair, weight-based shipping policy using the lowest cost, most popular carriers like USPS, UPS and FedEx. We want you to understand that we are not hiding anything. Along those same lines, we don’t treat shipping as an additional means of profit. Our goal is to break even on shipping. There are times that we may make or lose a couple of dollars on shipping due to fluctuating carrier rates, but we never intentionally overcharge. We’re in the homebrew business, not the freight business!
There’s a lot more to be said about shipping. I know some may think it is a boring subject, but when you’re purchasing items online, it is a subject that deserves special consideration. I also don’t want you to think that everyone offering free shipping is trying to rip you off. There are good deals to be had, but it is in your best interest to reflect on all the costs of your purchase. Don’t fall into the psychological trap of believing the flawed American eBay and Amazon free shipping models are the end-all. Don’t abandon the cart when the additional shipping amount displays after you have entered your shipping address! The main thing I would like you to gather here is…
In most cases, Free Shipping is a Lie!
Several books are available. Look at as many as you can, talk to other brewers also for advice. Popular titles widely available are:
- The Complete Joy of Brewing, by Charlie Papazian, the “bible” of homebrewing
- Basic Homebrewing – A visual guide of the entire homebrewing process
- Extreme Brewing, by Sam Calagione, owner of Dogfish Head Craft Brewery
The cause of over-carbonated beer is usually over-priming (adding too much priming sugar) or not achieving the correct final gravity reading for your particular recipe. Add less priming sugar next time, and be sure not to bottle until your final gravity reading has been reached. To reduce the carbonation, refrigerate the beer before opening. If the beer gushes (keeps foaming and foaming after opening), it has most likely become infected. Use proper sterilization techniques to avoid this in the future.
Naturally carbonated beers need about 2 weeks at room temperature to become fully carbonated. After the 2-week period, they can be stored at cooler (not necessarily cold) temperatures.
Yes, you can filter beer, however we do not recommend it, due to the high possibility of oxidation. If filtered, beer must be filtered beer must be filtered with a filter designed specifically for beer. A wine filter can’t be used, as it will oxidize the beer. A coffee filter should never be used. Filtered beer then needs to be artificially carbonated.
The beer will clear itself after it has been bottled – this is the sediment at the bottom of the bottle. To get it clear prior to bottling, there are several methods. The simplest is to use the two-stage method of brewing. The beer can stay in secondary until it is clear. Finings (clearing agents) can also be added. These are added 24-48 hours prior to bottling.
It is spent yeast. It is in all naturally carbonated beers and sodas. There will be more sediment with beers brewed single stage as the beer has not cleared completely prior to bottling. It will not hurt you if you drink it. If you want to drink a clear beer, pour the beer carefully into a glass, and avoid disturbing the sediment.
Yes, you can grow hops quite easily. In fact, EC HOMEBREW sells Hop Rhizomes each spring, just in time for planting! Hops are a vine, and come from a rooting or rhizome not seeds. Hops need fertile soil, in full sun, with plenty of space to grow up (they can reach 18-20 feet tall). They are harvested in the fall, when the cones are light (as opposed to heavy) and you can see the lupulin (the yellow sticky stuff). The cones should be dried before storage (freezing is best). Several books are available and may be consulted for detailed instructions. Growing instructions are included at the time of purchase.
The Cornelius keg system is the most common method used to keg beer. It is the same keg used with soft drink systems. The finished beer is siphoned into the keg, and either priming sugar is added, or it can be artificially carbonated using the CO2. Reference books are available that cover this subject in complete detail.
Lovibond is a method by which malt and beer color are determined. The lower the number, the lighter the malt/finished beer, and vice versa. It is usually expressed as a range of numbers, and may be abbreviated using the letter “L”.
Mashing is the process by which the malted grain is converted into fermentable wort. Heat and moisture is needed to convert the remaining starch to sugars. Several methods are available, and are detailed in the mashing section of any beer brewing reference book.
Two different types of grain are available to the brewer, and refer to how the grain looks in the field. 2-row yields a higher extract with less husk material. Microbrewers, European and British brewers use it. It has the widest selection of styles and varieties. 6-row is used primarily by large American breweries as it contains more starch-degrading enzyme, and therefore is better when used in conjunction with corn or rice.
Dry hopping is adding hops, usually loose or plugs, to the wort during or near the end of fermentation. It adds a different flavor and aroma than finishing hops (those added at the end of the boil), as the volatile oils will not be eliminated by the heat. It is used in British and American beers. It should not be used instead of finishing hops, as this will change the style of the beer.
Fermentation usually begins within 24 hours of pitching the yeast. Liquid yeast, if a yeast starter has not been made, can sometimes take a little longer. You should see vigorous bubbling or foam in the initial stages. About 4-5 days after the initial stages, the fermentation settles down to a “quiet” bubbling. If you are using a plastic bucket with an airlock, the initial fermentation is not always apparent by looking at the fermentation lock, but if you can see the foam, the beer is fermenting. Your hydrometer reading is the most accurate way of determining the progress of fermentation.
There are commercial yeast starters available. For those, just follow the directions on the label. For a homemade one:Add 2 – 5 tablespoons of dry or liquid malt to two (2) cups of water and bring to a boil. Boil for five (5) minutes; remove from heat and cool to room temperature. When cool, put into a sterilized 22-oz beer or regular wine bottle, add the dry or liquid yeast and shake well. Put a stopper and airlock on the bottle and allow to ferment (or activate) for 24 hours. When the yeast is fully activated, add to cooled wort. Note: liquid yeast supplied in a foil pouch is usually activated first in the pouch, then added to the starter.
A yeast starter is usually used with liquid yeast, but may also be used with dry yeast. The yeast is added to a small solution of malt and water to allow full activation of the yeast before it is pitched. Yeast cells are dormant prior to being added to a wort, and need to be activated before they can start making beer. A starter is made typically 24 hours before pitching. Fermentation begins faster with fully activated yeast.
Pitching is another word for adding yeast.
Single Stage: the beer goes through the entire fermentation cycle in one bucket. It should be brewed at room temperature (65-75ºF), take about 5-7 days, and be bottled as soon as it is finished fermenting. As beer brews, a sediment is formed, and if the beer sits on this sediment too long, it will pick up some “off” flavors. This is nothing that will harm or hurt you, but will just taste and/or smell bad. The sediment consists of spent yeast, used hop pellets, and boiling by-products.Two Stage: the beer starts out in a primary fermenter (usually a bucket). The initial fermentation is very active, and forms a head (like a freshly poured glass of beer). This lasts about 3 days, and then will “fall” and become slower. This happens when the gravity has fallen by about half. At this point, the beer should be siphoned to a secondary fermenter (usually glass). The liquid should come to within an inch or so of the stopper. The beer finishes fermenting in this container. The advantage to Two Stage is that the beer can remain in the fermenter until it is clear and you are ready to bottle. The sediment on the bottom of the Secondary is not as harmful to your beer as the sediment on the bottom of the Primary. Two Stage brewing must be used when lagering beer, as the secondary fermentation is done at a lower temperature.Blow-By: this is usually done as Single Stage fermentation. A glass carboy (fermenter) is used, and a 3-4 foot hose, 1” in diameter. The beer is put into the carboy, and the hose is fit into the neck of the carboy instead of a stopper and airlock. The other end of the hose goes into a smaller bucket filled with water. This forms a type of airlock. The active fermentation goes out through the hose, and into the bucket. Do not try to save this and add it back into the fermenter. When the head falls, and the fermentation has settled down, remove the hose and attach a stopper and airlock and proceed as for Single Stage.
Barrels are used to ferment, age and give a wine an oak flavor. They are the traditional container for winemaking, but are not necessary. Wine makers making less than about 20 gallons of any one type of wine are not encouraged to use one. Smaller barrels give the wine an oak flavor much quicker than large barrels (sometimes a matter of weeks as opposed to months). Oak chips or oak essence (a natural liquid extract of oak) will give the same taste without the expense.There are several types of oak barrels available. Each imparts a different type of flavor to the wine. American oak gives a strong oak flavor, and high astringency. It is best suited for strong red wines. French oak is the most favored of all.Barrels should be inspected prior to use for bacteria, mold, cracks or anything else that could interfere with the wine making process. New, unused barrels should be treated to remove the excess tannin prior to use. Old whiskey barrels should have the char removed, then treated like a new barrel to remove the tannin. Good, used barrels that are being emptied of wine but not immediately filled with new wine need to be stored with a solution of sterilizer and water to avoid the barrels going bad (sour). Barrels are expensive and valuable, and are worth taking care of properly.
This is precipitated tartaric acid. It is harmless and is a natural byproduct of fermentation and aging. The crystals that settle out soften the wine and are usually seen after the wine has been kept at cool temperatures for a long period of time. If they are in the fermenting vessels, they should be left behind after racking. If in the bottle, they should be left in the bottle. They are not harmful to drink, but don’t taste good.
Wine should be bottled, corked and stored on its side for proper aging. Some aging does occur in the carboy or barrel, but the final aging only begins once the wine is bottled and corked. One thing that should never be done is to take off (or draw off) a portion of a carboy or barrel for immediate consumption and leave the rest. This invites oxidation of the remainder of the wine by creating a large air space on the top of the wine. Oxidized wine turns brown and bitter. In general, 2 cases (24 bottles) of 750ml bottles will be needed for each 5 gallons of wine. Used wine bottles are fine as long as they are clean and sterilized before use. Always use new corks.
Filtering adds the final polish to wine, but does not need to be done. An unfiltered wine, even though clear when bottled, will usually develop a fine sediment as it ages. The sediment is very small particulate matter that all wines contain. This sediment is what is removed by filtering. Several types of filters are available to the home winemaker, both manual and electric. Before buying a filter, be sure to discuss your needs with the supplier, as they will be able to advise you on the correct type of filter. Never filter a wine that has not been fined first, as you risk clogging up the filters.
Fining is the removal of sediment (proteins and excess tannin among them) that can cloud a finished wine. Several different types of fining agents are available. They all work by attracting the sediment and forming heavy enough “clumps” to settle to the bottom of the fermenter. Fining agents are added prior to bottling, and should always be used prior to filtering. Bentonite is a very fine clay that is mixed with a small amount of water or wine. Isinglass is a liquid made from fish bladders. Gelatin is also used. These are all available where winemaking supplies are sold.
An SO2 test kit measures the amount of sulfite in wine. This measurement should be done on finished wine, at the time of bottling. Follow the directions for sampling and measurement that are in the kit.
An Acid test kit allows the measurement of tartaric acid (the most important of the several acids present). A wine too high in acid is sharp and tart. One too low is flat or “flabby”. The acid test kit usually contains a container to put a measured sample of wine in, a color indicator and a neutralizer. Follow the directions of the kit to determine the acid content, then make any adjustments, if needed. The best time to measure and adjust is prior to adding yeast, and also before adding any sulfite to kill wild yeast. Adding a measured amount of water can reduce a must that is too high in acid. Adding acid blend (a balanced blend of tartaric, malic and citric acid) can increase one too low in acid. Consult a good reference book for further details.
It can be done, but you need to be very careful about your sanitation and fermentation. The wine also will not keep for very long. Sulfur dioxide is a natural by-product of wine fermentation. It is also added during the fermentation process to help protect and preserve the wine from oxidation. It inhibits or kills bacteria or wild yeast. Other chemicals (acid blend, tannin, pectic enzyme, etc) are used as needed to ensure a good, drinkable wine at the end of the process, rather than leaving it all to chance. Used as a sanitizer, everything that comes in contact with a wine (bottles, fermenters, siphon hoses, etc.) should be rinsed with a solution of ½ oz sodium or potassium metabisulfite to 1 gallon of water. Just rinse the item and let it drain – do not rinse with water afterwards.
No. The wine needs to breathe through the cork to properly age. Wax, plastic or PVC seals may be added if you wish to give the bottle away, to dress it up.
Traditional corks need to be soaked in water before using. This softens them, making them flexible and easier to insert. The recommended method for preparation is:1.
- Boil a quantity of water, and allow to cool. Put corks into a container, pour the water on top of them, and let it sit for 24-48 hours. Be sure the corks are completely submerged.2.
- 10-30 minutes prior to bottling, drain off the water, and add the sterilent: sodium or potassium metabisulfite solution. Again, make sure the corks are submerged. They do not need to be drained or dried before inserting into the bottle.3.
- After bottling, keep the bottles upright for 24 hours, then put on their sides for storage.
AltecÒ or Resin corks do not need to be presoaked prior to bottling. They should be dipped into the sanitizing solution just prior to corking. AltecÒ corks are best inserted with either a GildaÒ corker or Floor corker (both use “iris compression”, like a camera lens). Resin corks should be inserted using a Twin lever or Floor corker. Wines corked with either of these corks can be laid down immediately.
New cork types are now available for the home winemaker. The home winemaker has the choice between traditional corks (“cork corks”), ALTEC® corks (a mix of cork and synthetic resin) and Resin corks (synthetic). Altec® corks are a new type of cork now available for the home winemaker. They are composed of a new material made by fusing the purest part of cork with synthetic cells. This material produces a cork that retains all the best properties of a traditional cork, and does not leave an off-taste or odor, leak, defect in the cork surface and can easily be removed by any cork extractor. Resin corks are totally synthetic. This material also does not leave an off-taste or odor, leak and can easily be removed by any cork extractor. Traditional corks are traditional in that the cork is harvested from the cork tree. This harvest does not harm the tree and is also done at prescribed intervals to keep the tree healthy and productive. The variations seen in the corks are natural and should be expected in a natural product.
A standard wine bottle (375, 750 ml or 1.5 L) all take a #9 cork. To use this size cork, you will need a corker. A corker is the tool to insert the corks. The number of the cork refers the size: a #8 cork is smaller, and is needed for some older or cheaper corkers. A #7 cork is used only if champagne bottles are used (they are not champagne corks) or the cork is being inserted by hand (no corker used). The #9 gives the best seal.
By adding proper wine yeast to a must (unfermented fruit/grape juice), control over the finished product is easier. Wine made without using added yeast (using wild yeast) may not properly ferment, may develop off or odd flavors/aromas, or not turn out right at all. Wild yeast by itself is very sensitive to sulfur dioxide and does not ferment when the alcohol content goes above 5%. By adding yeast specifically designed for winemaking, the winemaker has better control over the finished product and the process itself. A winemaker who depends on the “wild yeast” to make wine is taking a gamble that there is enough “good” yeast around to make good wine. By adding wine yeast, the winemaker knows the wine will ferment the way it should, and will be good in the end.
Once wine has been racked to secondary, it should be topped off. This means the wine should be within 1-2 inches of the stopper. If a large air space is left in the carboy, the wine will oxidize, turn brown and taste bad. When racking from primary, extra wine should be put into a smaller bottle (wine bottles with stoppers and locks) and used for topping off after each racking. This smaller quantity of wine should be treated the same as the larger one, as it is fermenting along with the rest. If extra wine is not available, a similar finished wine should be used. Water should be avoided if the quantity needed is more than 1-2 cups per 5 gallons. Adding water in greater amounts will water down the wine, making it taste watery and reduce the body.
Wine begins in a plastic bucket (called a primary) that is slightly larger than the finished volume (ie: 5 ½ – 6 gallons to yield 5 gallons). After the initial fermentation, when it is half way finished, it is transferred (racked) to the glass secondary. When the wine is finished fermenting, it will be racked twice more (each separated by a month). The wine will be clearer each time. The wine can be bottled after this.
Basic equipment for a 5 gallon batch (2 cases): a plastic bucket, a 5 gallon glass carboy, siphon hose, hydrometer, sterilizer, stopper and fermentation lock. The ingredients can be as simple as a wine kit (all ingredients except water), or a more detailed recipe. At the time of bottling, you will need 2 cases of bottles (regular 750 ml wine bottles), corks and a corker.
All equipment and hardware we sell is guaranteed for 14 days. Brewing ingredients, additives, chemicals and other perishable items have a ‘use by’ or ‘best before’ date printed on them. These items are guaranteed until that specified date.
Many of our products (and our kits, in particular) come with detailed instructions that explain what to do. You can also find a wealth of information simply by using Google, and/or YouTube. Finally, we have a very broad Instructional Videos library for you to peruse through. If after this, you are still stuck, just give us a shout! We will do our best to help you.
A good way to get started with home brewing is to buy a starter kit. These kits include all the ingredients and equipment you need to brew a batch of beer, wine or cider. For instance:
- Sterilizing powder
- Brewer’s bucket
- Sugar, spray malt or beer enhancer
- Priming sugar
You might also need to purchase a barrel and/or some bottles to hold your beer, wine or cider. Our kits include comprehensive instructions. There is also lots of advice and information for first-time brewers that can be found under our FAQ “WINEMAKING QUESTIONS” and “BEERMAKING QUESTIONS” categories. Finally, we have a very broad Instructional Videos library for you to peruse through… Grab a cold one, Click Here, sit back and enjoy our videos!
Most orders will be sent out via standard shipping service and arrive in 2-4 days from the business day after you place your order. Orders placed over the weekend or on a holiday will be shipped the next business day.
Shipping cost depends what you are ordering and where you are located. Cost also depends on the weight, volume and dimensions of the items you are purchasing. We will show shipping prices when you check out.
- We do not have an order minimum.
- Lead time for processing orders is generally 1-2 days.
- After you place your order, you will receive an automated confirmation email. At this time, we have only authorized your payment. Please allow us 1-2 business days to verify that all items in your order are in stock and ready to ship. Within this time, we will either manually capture your payment, fulfill and ship your order and you will receive another automated email confirmation; or we will email you describing any proposed order changes for your approval. During this time, please notify us promptly if you need to make any changes, otherwise, your order will be shipped as-is.
- If one or more of your order items is not available, we will email you with options to deduct that item(s) and proceed with shipping the rest of your order; put that item(s) on backorder and provide an estimated arrival date or cancel your order entirely. You may also request a change to your order during this time. If you do not reply to our email within 1 business day, we will adjust your bill accordingly and proceed to ship the rest of the available items in your order.
- Our dropshipper will determine the lowest cost carrier after your order has been processed. Shipping cost is determined by the weight and dimensions of your product(s).
- We usually ship smaller orders by FedEx Ground or USPS Priority Mail. The rate you were quoted when placing your order is based on fixed and standardized rates for one given carrier. The actual rate WE pay may vary, but you will pay the same amount you were quoted at Check Out. If there are any changes, we will always contact you PRIOR to manually capturing your payment.
- All orders are shipped “FOB: Origin”. This means that once products leave our dropshipper’s warehouse, they become the legal property of the buyer.
- There is generally a one-day turnaround from the time you place your order until it is fulfilled in our warehouse. On the following day after you place you order, shipments generally leave the warehouse.
- FedEx 3-Day, 2-Day, or Overnight Delivery is available by including a message with instructions at Checkout. Please note the one-day turnaround time before your order actually leaves the warehouse.
- Expedited shipments are only delivered on weekdays.
- Expedited shipments ordered on Thursday will ship Friday, and not arrive until Monday.
Larger and heavier items ship on a pallet with one of our freight carriers.
- We do not provide you with freight cost at time of order. After we have received your order and researched the most cost-effective freight shipping options, we will contact you with a quote.
- We often combine your order with others, so our shipping fees are generally less than if you tried to arrange freight shipping yourself.
- Freight fees involve weight, item volume, whether you are shipping to a business or a residence and if the truck needs to have a liftgate.
- Shipping to a business address is usually less expensive than shipping to a residential address.
- If your destination does not have a loading dock and/or forklift, you must specify at time of ordering that your delivery truck must have a liftgate. If you neglect to do so, your order could be returned, and/or the freight company may bill you associated additional fees to both return the current truck and send another with a liftgate.
- All freight orders take additional processing time, for both research and dispatch. Generally, you can add 2-4 days to turnaround time for all freight orders.
- If your address has limited access, you could be billed additional fees directly by the freight carrier.
- We bill based on one pallet per order. If you think more can fit onto your pallet, and you would like to try and combine products to maximize your pallet shipping fee, please email us with specifics at [email protected]
Warranty and Return Policy
- ECHOMEBREW offers a 14 day warranty on most all products. If you have a problem with a product, please contact us and we will make every effort to repair or replace your product(s), and if we are unable to do so, will arrange a prompt refund.
- You will not be responsible for any shipping fees if you receive an item in error by EC HOMEBREW. Any defective products not reported to EC HOMEBREW within 14 days will not be eligible for return or refund.
- If defective products are returned in new and resalable condition within 14 days, EC HOMEBREW will replace or issue a full refund.
- Any perishable products are not eligible for return or refund, unless extenuating circumstances fully warrant consideration.
- Any products that we dropship directly from other vendors cannot be returned unless defective.
All returns require the following:
- The original invoice number
- The product name and/or item number
- The reason for the return
Provided you contact us within 14 days, we will provide you with a Return Authorization Number (RA Number). Please ship back to the address we provide (the warehouse from which it was originally sent), and affix this RA Number to the outside of the box. We will issue you a credit upon receipt of the product. To be eligible for credit. all returns must have RA Number attached.
Shipping Damage and Defective Items
It is the customer’s responsibility to thoroughly inspect orders for damage at time of delivery. If you sign-off on a delivery, and then try to return it thereafter claiming damage, your request for refund or exchange may be denied.
If you receive a damaged shipment:
- DO NOT refuse or try to return the delivery. This will only further complicate matters!
- If delivered by truck, note any damages on the delivery receipt. If your parcel(s) was delivered by UPS or FedEx, note damages on the delivery receipt, and request a copy of of this document noting the damage for your records.
- If you suspect possible damage, but are unable to ascertain for certain, write a note on the receipt mentioning something like, “One box corner dented, possible damage to product inside TBD”.
- Take photos of everything to support your claim.
- Do not discard any packing boxes or packaging materials. It is highly likely that the carrier may demand to inspect these items.
- Once we have received your formal claim, EC HOMEBREW will file a damage claim on your behalf.
- You have 14 days from date of delivery to claim any damages. After 14 days have passed, no returns, credits or exchanges will be allowed.
- EC HOMEBREW will either provide you with store credit, refund or replace your defective product(s). Sometimes, our manufacturers handle technical support and returns directly. ln this case, you may be referred to the manufacturer for fastest resolution.